Abstract

Power semiconductors and modules are basic components of electrical infrastructure and are currently widely used in applications such as power conversion devices, industrial equipment, railways, and automobiles. Power modules are being developed with the aim of downsizing and increasing power output. With the larger current densities and higher operating temperatures associated with downsizing and increasing power output, degradation of power modules can occur as a result of electromigration. Electromigration is a phenomenon where atoms move due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and metal atoms. In addition, atoms are also moved by mechanical stress gradients and temperature gradients, so it is necessary to take into consideration the combined effects of electrical, thermal, and mechanical stress.

In this report, we describe an electrical-thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of electromigration in a bonding wire of a power module. First, the analysis is validated under the condition that the displacement of the wire surface is fixed. The distributions of vacancy concentrations and hydrostatic stress are almost equal to those in previous studies. Next, we present the influences of current density, temperature, and the displacement constraint on electromigration in a wire with a simplified shape. The analysis results confirm that the plasticity and creep should be taken into consideration in a bonding wire. This also confirm that vacancy concentration increase more rapidly by changing the displacement of the wire surface from the fixed condition to the free condition. Finally, we present analysis results for a bonding wire with the actual shape found in power modules. In this wire, a local concentration peak appear in the electrode terminal. The analysis results reveal that electromigration may affect not only void formation but also other failure phenomena in the bonding wire of power modules.

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