The paper industry uses steam to dry paper web through cylinder dryers. As steam condenses inside the cylinder dryer, the condensate is removed by means of either a stationary or a rotary siphon. However, during the siphoning process for transporting the condensate, flashing of the condensate occurs, which could cause backflow or discontinuity in the siphoning process. To resolve this flashing issue, two approaches have been employed: (a) increasing the amount of steam supplied to the cylinder to “blow-through” the stalled condensate-steam mixture and (b) reducing the back pressure by inducing “suction” through a thermocompressor from downstream. This practice of employing push from the upstream and suction from the downstream requires excessively large amounts of high-grade steam, resulting in an estimated 10 to 15 %, 15 to 25%, and 40 to 90 % of blow-through steam for stationary siphons, rotary siphons, and Yankee dryers respectively. The objective of this study is to investigate and improve understanding of the flashing phenomena during condensate transport through the siphon and piping system in order to develop means to reduce this excessive steam consumption during the paper drying process. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is performed that uses the Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase method. The steady-state case is first solved to obtain the flow field without flashing. Then the transient method is initiated by employing flashing and condensation models. The results show that reduction of local pressure triggers flashing, however, flashing in turn reduces local temperature, and subsequently induces condensation, resulting in an alternating flashing and condensation behavior. To maintain continuity of the siphon flow, the inlet pressure fluctuates corresponding to the variation of total vapor volume ratio inside the siphon. The results will be used to modify the current siphon system design and operating practices to reduce steam consumption.

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