This paper numerically explores a high-temperature sensible-latent hybrid thermal energy storage system designed to store heat with output temperatures stabilized at approximately 550–600 °C for direct coupling with supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles operating at their design point. sCO2 and dry air at 25 MPa are used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) in a packed bed storage system that combines rocks as sensible heat storage and AlSi12 as latent heat storage. The base model using dry air at atmospheric pressure is compared to similar work done at ETH Zurich; the model is then extended for use with sCO2 to compare the performance of air and sCO2 at similar volumetric flow rates. It was found that sCO2 is capable of storing a significantly larger amount of energy (∼40 kWh) in the same time period as the air system (∼19 kWh), and can discharge that energy much quicker (1.5 hours compared to 4 hours). However, in order to achieve similar degrees of temperature stabilization, the total height of PCM had to be increased significantly, from 9 cm to 45 cm or more.

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