The outstanding properties of single-layer graphene sheets for energy storage are hindered as agglomeration or restacking leads to the formation of graphite. The implications of the aforementioned arise on the difficulties associated with the aqueous processing of graphene sheets: from large-scale production to its utilization in solvent-assisted techniques like spin coating or layer-by-layer deposition. To overcome this, aqueous dispersions of graphene were stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals colloids. Aqueous cellulose nanocrystals dispersion highlights as a low-cost and environmentally friendly stabilizer towards graphene large-scale processing. Colloids of cellulose nanocrystals are formed by electrostatic repulsion of fibrils due to de-protonated carboxyl or sulfate half-ester functional groups. Graphene dispersions are obtained by hydrothermal reduction of electrochemically exfoliated graphene oxide in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals. This approach allows the preservation of the intrinsic properties of the nano-sheets by promoting non-covalent interactions between cellulose and graphene. The dispersions could be cast to form free-standing flexible conducting films or freeze-dried to form foams and aerogels for capacitive energy storage.

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