The development of sustainable, cost-effective, reliable, efficient and stable materials and methods for continuous fresh water production is crucial for many regions of the world. Among the many other options, graphene nanoflakes seem to be good option to solve the global water problem due to their low energy cost and simple operational process to purify waste water. The produced water can be used for drinking, agriculture, gardening, medical, industrial and other purposes. Most of the nanofilter-based multifunctional fresh water systems do not require large infrastructures or centralized systems, and can be portable to remote regions for efficient water treatment. Graphene was discovered as a single-layer of isolated graphite atoms arranged in 2D hexagonal shape, making it the thinnest and strongest material known to date. Despite its intriguing mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, usage of graphene for different industries has not been investigated in detail. The present study investigated the availability and practical use of graphene inclusions for desalination of salt water to produce fresh water. In the present study, graphene was added to 3.5wt% salt water (similar to sea water) at different percentages. Graphene has a high absorption capability to convert solar energy into heat to enhance the evaporation rate of salt water. The graphene inclusions can also be used to remove bacteria, viruses, fungi, heavy metals and ions, complex organic and inorganic compounds, and other pathogens and pollutants present in various water sources (e.g., surface, ground water, and industrial water).

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