In order to investigate the performance and emissions behavior of a high compression ratio Compression Ignition (CI) engine operating in Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PPCI) mode, a series of experiments were conducted using a single cylinder naturally aspirated engine with a high-pressure rail fuel injection system. This included a moderately advanced direct injection strategy to attempt PPCI combustion under low load conditions by varying the injection timing between 25° and 35° Before Top Dead Center (BTDC) in steps of 2.5°. Furthermore, during experimentation the fuel injection pressure, engine speed, and engine torque (through variance of the fuel injection quantity) were kept constant. In-cylinder pressure, emissions, and performance parameters were measured and analyzed using a zero-dimensional heat release model. Compared to the baseline conventional 12.5° BTDC injection, in-cylinder pressure and temperature was higher at advanced timings for all load conditions considered. Additionally, NOx, PM, CO, and THC were higher than conventional results at the 0.5 N-m load condition. While PM emissions were lower, and CO and THC emissions were comparable to conventional injection results at the 1.5 N-m load condition between 25° and 30° BTDC, NOx emissions were relatively high. Hence, there was limited success in beating the NOx-PM tradeoff. In addition, since Start of Combustion (SOC) occurred BTDC, the resulting higher peak combustion pressures restricted the operating condition to lower loads to ensure engine safety. As a result, further investigation including Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and/or variance in fuel Cetane Number (CN) is required to achieve PPCI in a high compression ratio CI engine.

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