In this study, the low-temperature energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with different chemistries and nominal capacities at various charge and discharge rates is studied through multi-physics modeling and computer simulation. The model is based on the irreversible heat generation in the battery, leading to the charge/discharge efficiency in LIBs with graphite/LiFePO4, graphite/LiMn2O4, and graphite/LiCoO2 electrode materials in which the effects of the battery nominal capacity at various charge and discharge rates are studied. Using characterized sources of the heat generation in the LIB leads to providing a battery efficiency plot at different operation condition for each LIBs. The results of this study assist the battery engineers to have much more accurate prediction over the efficiency of the LIBs at low temperatures.

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