Numerical models were conducted to study the load/momentum/energy transfer to the clay and the clay response when it was used as backing behind hard and soft armor during ballistic experiments. Tie-break contacts were used to explicitly model the delamination in the composite panels. Yarn level models accounting for woven structures were used to model the soft armor. A rate-dependent material model with different responses under compression and tension, developed previously from impact tests, was used to model the clay. The clay indent depth was correlated to the momentum and kinetic energy transferred to the clay for with and without soft armor between the hard armor and clay backing.

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