In this article, the nano and microhardness and the elastic modulus of the human elbow bones (humerus, ulna and radius) were studied. The nano properties were studied using load controlled technique with a load of 20 mN, while the micro properties were studied under 1 N load. A total of nine bone samples from three cadavers of ages between 45 and 55 years were tested. The measurements were carried out on both osteonal and interstitial bone in the longitudinal direction. The nanoindentation results indicated higher values for interstitial bone (hardness: 0.74 ± 0.09 GPa, elastic modulus: 19.05 ± 1.92 GPa) than for osteonal bone (hardness: 0.53 ± 0.05 GPa, elastic modulus: 16.66 ± 1.55 GPa). Consistent results were obtained at a depth of penetration between 1.1 μm to 1.5 μm in nanoindentation. In the case of microindentation, the microhardness and elastic modulus of interstitial bone was found to be 0.65 ± 0.07 GPa and 20.60 ± 2.27 GPa. Whereas for osteonal bone it was observed to be 0.60 ± 0.08 GPa and 14.56 ± 1.42 GPa respectively. The depth of penetration varies between the 8 μm to 11 μm for microindentation studies. In both measurement scales, a noticeable difference was observed between the osteonal and interstitial bone properties. As bone is a hierarchical structure, identifying the mechanical properties at the lamellar level helps in understanding the local mechanical environment of basic elements of the bones and predicting the behavior of the bone due to physiological loading.

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