Objective. The purpose of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on properties and bioactivity of experimental dental cement.
Methods. Specimens of the dental cement (pellets 13 mm in diameter × 3 mm thick) were prepared by cold pressing of micronized powder of set Alborg White Portland cement. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) were used to analyze the phase composition and determine the transition temperatures for sintering process. The effect of heat rate and dwell time on density, crystal morphologies, crystalline phases and elemental composition of cement was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro-Raman spectroscopy.
The bioactivity of set and heat-treated cements was evaluated by ability produce the hydroxyapatite (HA) layer on a surface of specimen immersed in a simulated body fluid (Dulbecco’s Phosphate-Buffered Saline (DPBS). The formation of hydroxyapatite was confirmed by SEM, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), XRD and and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The amount of produced HA was measured by weight method after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of immersion.
Results. The set of samples were sintered from experimental dental cement at various heating rate and dwell time. The highest density was obtained at slower heating rate and longer dwell time. The heat treatment changes the hydration phases without changing elemental composition. The heat treatment significantly improves biological performance of dental cement. The heat-treated cement produces 10 times more HA with immersion into simulated body fluid.