Many researchers have analyzed the equilibrium adsorption isotherm mechanism of water vapor molecules on 4A, 3A, Y and X zeolites for decades. The demand for moisture removal continues to increase along with the increasing stringency of requirements for product quality control and production energy efficiency. Due to the negative charge of the zeolite framework, exchangeable compensation cations such as Na+, Li+, K+, Ba2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ might be added. These cations are located at different sites within the framework and with different concentrations. Each cation shows a strong affinity to bond with water molecules. Adsorption sites must show a characteristic energy signature corresponding to the adsorbed amount. The values of enthalpies and entropies at each site are different since the bonding strength between the moisture molecules and cations of the site is also different. These exchangeable cations have a very important contribution in determining the zeolites adsorptive properties and selectivity. This investigation of the water vapor adsorption mechanism reveals that size, location, and type of exchangeable compensation cations have a concrete relationship to the adsorption process and zeolite cage capacity.

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