Motion planning of redundant manipulators is an active and widely studied area of research. The inverse kinematics problem can be solved using various optimization methods within the null space to avoid joint limits, obstacle constraints, as well as minimize the velocity or maximize the manipulability measure. However, the relation between the torques of the joints and their respective positions can complicate inverse dynamics of redundant systems. It also makes it challenging to optimize cost functions, such as total torque or kinematic energy. In addition, the functional gradient optimization techniques do not achieve an optimal solution for the goal configuration. We present a study on motion planning using optimal control as a pre-process to find optimal pose at the goal position based on the external forces and gravity compensation, and generate a trajectory with optimized torques using the gradient information of the torque function. As a result, we reach an optimal trajectory that can minimize the torque and takes dynamics into consideration. We demonstrate the motion planning for a planar 3-DOF redundant robotic arm and show the results of the optimized trajectory motion. In the simulation, the torque generated by an external force on the end-effector as well as by the motion of every link is made into an integral over the squared torque norm. This technique is expected to take the torque of every joint into consideration and generate better motion that maintains the torques or kinematic energy of the arm in the safe zone. In future work, the trajectories of the redundant manipulators will be optimized to generate more natural motion as in humanoid arm motion. Similar to the human motion strategy, the robot arm is expected to be able to lift weights held by hands, the configuration of the arm is changed along from the initial configuration to a goal configuration. Furthermore, along with weighted least norm (WLN) solutions, the optimization framework will be more adaptive to the dynamic environment. In this paper, we present the development of our methodology, a simulated test and discussion of the results.

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