This study evaluates the impact of excluding various regions of the upper respiratory system on particle depositions in lower airways. Three types of models were investigated, Type 1 includes nasal cavity, pharyngeal regions, trachea, and lower generations, Type 2 includes pharyngeal regions, trachea and lower generations, and finally Type 3 includes just the trachea and lower generations. Results indicate increased mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, and wall shear stress in hypopharynx and trachea regions for Types 1 and 2 models. There are strong secondary flows within the trachea just before the lower generations in these models, moving high velocity toward the wall regions, resulting in large velocity gradients and thus increased wall shear stress. For Type 3 model, only a small region experiences high velocity secondary flow and its distribution is significantly different than those of Type 1 and 2. Although total particle depositions differ between models, results show that for fine particles, the deposition ratios in lower airways are nearly the same.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.