Significant challenges exist for replicating osteochondral tissue due to the disparate, gradient nature of natural tissue in this region. The graded transition that exists in this region, moving from subchondral bone to hyaline cartilage at the joint surface, presents unique biological and mechanical challenges for tissue engineering. Past research identified a favorable pore distribution for 3D printed scaffolds. The objective of this research is to use that distribution and further investigate the effects of scaffold material selection and bioactive particle distribution on mechanical, biological, and physiological properties of 3D printed tissue engineered osteochondral scaffolds. Our results indicate that scaffolds constructed with a novel soy-based polymer outperform those constructed with ploy(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA). This study also indicates that incorporating nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) into the soy resin scaffold further improves cellular performance. Additionally, the nHA can be integrated in a controlled fashion to affect only the osteogenic portion of the osteochondral construct.

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