The increasing price of gold has resulted in industry interest in use of copper as alternative wire bonds interconnect material. Copper wire has the advantages of the lower cost, lower thermal resistivity, lower electrical resistivity, higher mechanical strength and higher deformation stability over the gold wire. In spite of the upside above, the Cu-Al wire bond is susceptible to the electrolytic corrosion and the reliability of Cu-Al wire bond is of great concern. Typical electronic molding compounds are hydrophilic and absorb moisture when exposed to humid environmental conditions. EMC contain ionic contaminants including chloride ions as a result of the chemical synthesis of the subcomponents of the resin, etching of metallization and the decomposition of the die-attach glue. The presence of moisture in the operating environment of semiconductor package makes the ion more mobile in the EMC. The migration of chloride ions to the Cu-Al interface may induce electrolytic corrosion inside the package causing degradation of the bond interface resulting in eventual failure. The rate at which the corrosion happens in the microelectronic packages is dependent upon the rate at which the ions transport through the EMC in addition to the reaction rate at the interface. In this effort, a multiphysics model for galvanic corrosion in the presence of chloride has been presented. The contaminant diffusion along with the corrosion kinetics has been modeled. In addition, contaminated samples with known concentration of KCl contaminant have been subjected to the temperature humidity conditions of 130°C/100RH. The resistance of the Cu-Al interconnects in the PARR test have been monitored periodically using resistance spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficients of chloride ion has been measured in the electronic molding compound at various temperatures using two methods including diffusion cell and inductively coupled plasma (ICPMS). Moisture ingress into the EMC has been quantified through measurements of the weight gain in the EMC as a function of time. Tafel parameters including the open circuit potential and the slope of the polarization curve has been measured for both copper, aluminum under different concentrations of the ionic species and pH values in the EMC. The measurements have been incorporated into the COMSOL model to predict the corrosion current at the Cu-Al bond pad. The model predictions have been correlated with experimental data.
Multiphysics Model for Chlorine-Ion Related Corrosion in Cu-Al Wirebond Microelectronic Packages
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Lall, P, Luo, Y, & Nguyen, L. "Multiphysics Model for Chlorine-Ion Related Corrosion in Cu-Al Wirebond Microelectronic Packages." Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 10: Micro- and Nano-Systems Engineering and Packaging. Houston, Texas, USA. November 13–19, 2015. V010T13A022. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2015-53742
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