We analyze the deformation of the substrate matrix and the shear forces it is exposed to through the geometry of graphite flakes in the substrate from samples already subjected to breaking pressure applications up to 30 bar. Microscopic Images of the cross-section of the brake pad polished to a 0.1 μm scale were examined. Statistical analysis was conducted, state vectors and variance-co-variance matrix were defined, and considered every state as a distribution. Parameters for each “shear deformation stage” were estimated using Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Finally, a mixture model was identified for the distribution of graphite flakes across the rotor thickness.

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