Frequently, Two-phase flow occurs in petroleum industry. It takes place on production and transportation of oil and natural gas. Initially, the most common patterns for vertical flow are Bubble, Slug, Churn and Annular Flow. Then, for horizontal flow, the most common patterns are Stratified Smooth, Stratified Wavy, Elongated Bubble, Slug, Annular, Wavy Annular and Dispersed Bubble Flow. It is also known that after separation, each fluid is carried through pipes, so oil is moved long distances. However, as it is known, the oil energy diminishes on the way. For that reason, it is needed a pumping station for keeping the oil flow energy high for proper movement. Additionally, that fluid is transported through a network, so fittings are present, like elbows, “T” and “Y” junctions, and others. As known, on a piping network, the losses can be classified in two groups: large and localized. The former consists on losses due to wall roughness-fluid interaction. The latter is related with fittings. This study is focused on 45° “Y” junctions. The main purpose of this study is to simulate the fluid flow on a 45° “Y” junction, using a 0.1143 m diameter 2 m length pipe, in which a 0.0603 m diameter 1 m length pipe confluences, using oil-gas as the working fluid, considering Dispersed Bubble Pattern. It can be attributed a “K” flow loss coefficient for each path, from each entry to the exit of the junction. For the Two-Phase Flow, it was supposed a horizontal Dispersed Bubble Pattern, which takes place at very high liquid flow rates. So the liquid phase is the continuous phase, in which the gas phase is dispersed as discrete bubbles. Particularly three API Grades were considered for the oil, corresponding to three main types of continuous phase. For the numerical model, it was generated several non-structured grids for validation, using water as a fluid. Then the simulations were carried out, using non-homogenous model, with oil and gas, changing the gas void fraction, and the superficial velocities for gas and liquid. A commercial package was used for numerical calculations. It was encountered that changing the value of the referred variables, in some cases the exit pressure of the “Y” junction diminishes. For validation of the results, a literature model was used for comparing both “K” loss coefficients: numerically and from the bibliography. It is important to highlight that these results, permit to analyze a way of diminishing the fluid energy losses in a Two-Phase oil-gas piping network, particularly in 45° “Y” junctions which represents economically saving.
Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in 45 Degrees “Y” Junctions
Chacon, C, Moreno, C, Arbej, M, & Asuaje, M. "Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in 45 Degrees “Y” Junctions." Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 7B: Fluids Engineering Systems and Technologies. Houston, Texas, USA. November 13–19, 2015. V07BT09A030. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2015-50631
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