In this paper, a vibration model considering the impact force is developed based on Hertz contact theory. The model considered both structural parameters and kinematic parameters. In this model, the contact areas between balls and races are simulated as linear springs, and the contact areas between the inner race and shaft and the contact areas between the outer race and housing are considered as spring-damper systems. Unlike previous studies, in which the stiffness was simply calculated in one direction, the stiffness parameters were calculated separately in the horizontal and vertical directions in the present study. In this model, the impact process between rolling elements and defective races, which is affected by velocity, was studied in detail. The solution of the vibration equation was obtained using the Runge-Kutta method. The numerical results for 6204 deep groove type ball bearings with outer race defects have been obtained and compared with the experimental results, which validated the effectiveness of this model in both the fault mechanism analysis of rolling element bearings and fault diagnosis.

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