In the advancement of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, 3D desktop printers have become an accessible solution to address the current manufacturing practices for most industries and the general public. This study explores the effect default build parameters have on the tensile properties of additive manufactured parts by comparing the Young’s Modulus and tensile strength of polylactic acid (PLA) in the elastic region before and after the AM process through experiments and numerical simulations. The build parameters are specified via MakerBot Desktop — the file preparation software for the MakerBot Replicator 3D printer used to create the specimens tested herein. This work presents the tensile mechanical properties for specimens built using low infill rate, low layer resolution, and standard build speed and extrusion temperature to recreate the worst possible part quality attainable using MakerBot 3D Desktop printers. Using these build parameters results in a part with a hollow honeycomb interior structure, and due to its heterogeneous cross sectional area, experimental stress-strain curves do not accurately represent its physical response to tensile loading. Therefore in this case, an experimental-numerical study of the 3D printed specimens is performed, using the load-displacement experimental data acquired from tensile tests to calibrate the ANSYS Structural Mechanics simulations. The goal is to optimize the material properties in our simulation such that the equivalent strain magnitude matches the experiments. This is an approach to determine the experimental Young’s modulus of PLA additive manufactured parts where the AM process, heterogeneous structure, and size greatly influence the part strength. This is completed by studying the worst part quality possible first to better understand this effect. Tensile tests are performed using an ADMET 5603 Universal Test Machine (UTM) synched with a Correlated Solutions 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system. A fine heterogeneous speckle pattern is sprayed on the specimens and used by the DIC system to obtain surface contours of deformation. This data is compared to the displacement fields in the finite element analysis (FEA) simulation of the specimen.
When compared to the pre-manufacturing PLA, additive manufactured parts exposed that the post-processed stiffness of the material is increased when tested under this loading condition. The Poisson’s ratio for printed PLA was also noted to decrease when compared to pre-manufactured PLA, due to the larger longitudinal deformation compared to the transverse. Specimens failed by brittle fracture across the hex pattern, showing limited deformation and failing short after. The failure location based on the influence interior geometry has on failure showed that specimens failed by brittle fracture across the hex pattern, initiating fracture in the same region of all specimens.