A facile electrochemical anodization method was used for producing hierarchically textured surfaces based on TiO2 nanotubes in two different configurations. It was found that perfluoro-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes exhibit high static contact angles for a variety of liquids such as apolar, polar aprotic and polar protic solvents. Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories were applied for theoretical contact angle calculations for the present study. By using Cassie theories, it is shown that a drop of polar liquid was in a fakir or Cassie-Baxter (CB) state on perfluoro-functionalized nanotube surfaces. The fakir state prevents spreading of the liquid on the surface. On the other hand, the wetting of non-polar liquids such as hexane is characterized by either Wenzel states or transition states characterized by partial imbibition that lie in between the CB and Wenzel states.

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