Recently, the environmental impact of wind farms has been receiving increasing attention. As land is more extensively exploited for onshore wind farms, they are more likely to be in proximity with human dwellings, infrastructure (e.g. roads, transmission lines) and environmental features (e.g. rivers, lakes, forests). As a result of regulatory constraints, this proximity causes significant portions of the wind farm terrain to become unusable for turbine placement. In this work, we present a constrained, continuous-variable model for layout optimization that takes noise and energy as objective functions, based on Jensen’s wake model and ISO-9613-2 noise calculations. A multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the optimization problem, considering a set of land use constraints, which are handled with static and dynamic penalty functions. A set of test cases with different number of turbines and percentages of land availability are solved. Results from this bi-objective optimization model illustrate how the severity of the land use constraints affects the trade-off between energy generation and noise production.

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