In-vitro dynamic knee simulators allow researchers to investigate changes in natural knee biomechanics due to pathologies, injuries or total joint replacement. The advent of the instrumented tibia, which directly measures knee loads in-vivo, has provided a wealth data for various activities that in-vitro studies now aim to replicate [1, 2]. Dynamic knee simulators, such as the Kansas Knee Simulator (KKS), achieve these physiological loads at the joint by applying external loads to either bone ends or musculature. Determining the external loading conditions necessary to replicate activity specific joint loads, obtained from instrumented tibia data, during dynamic simulations are calculated using computational models.
Modeling of a Dynamic Knee Simulator With Advanced PID Controller to Evaluate Joint Loading Conditions
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Fitzwater, F, Lenz, A, & Maletsky, L. "Modeling of a Dynamic Knee Simulator With Advanced PID Controller to Evaluate Joint Loading Conditions." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 4A: Dynamics, Vibration, and Control. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. November 14–20, 2014. V04AT04A009. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2014-38932
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