The Zone of Intrusion (ZOI) is a measurement of the furthest protrusion of a vehicle component behind a permanent concrete barrier during a crash. Often, roadside objects or structures, such as luminaire poles or trees, are located within or near the ZOI of a barrier, posing a risk to the occupants of impacting vehicles. Due to the high costs of full-scale crash testing it is not practical to test for the ZOI of every size and shape of barrier. As an alternative, non-linear finite element simulation was used to develop ZOI guidelines for the 40-inch tall F-shape parapet and the 9.1-degree single-slope parapet (at heights of 36, 42 and 56 inches). Results showed a minimum ZOI of 0 inches for the 56-inch tall barrier and a maximum ZOI of 9 inches for the 36-inch one. The amount of vehicle structure overhanging the barriers was limited to the front corner of the hood, and under certain conditions, small portions of the fender. Tire friction, tire deflation, suspension component failures and combinations of those vehicle behaviors had little influence on the ZOI.

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