Current trends in the automotive industry warrant a variety of electronics for improved control, safety, efficiency and entertainment. Many of these electronic systems like engine control units, variable valve sensor, crankshaft-camshaft sensors are located under-hood. Electronics installed in under-hood applications are subjected simultaneously to mechanical vibrations and thermal loads. Typical failure modes caused by vibration induced high cycle fatigue include solder fatigue, copper trace or lead fracture. The solder interconnects accrue damage much faster when vibrated at elevated temperatures. Industry migration to lead-free solders has resulted in a proliferation of a wide variety of solder alloy compositions. Presently, the literature on mechanical behavior of lead-free alloys under simultaneous harsh environment of high-temperature vibration is sparse. In this paper, the reduction in stiffness of the PCB with temperature has been demonstrated by measuring the shift in natural frequencies. The test vehicle consisting of a variety of lead-free SAC305 daisy chain components including BGA, QFP, SOP and TSOPs has been tested to failure by subjecting it to two elevated temperatures and harmonic vibrations at the corresponding first natural frequency. The test matrix includes three test temperatures of 25C, 75C and 125C and simple harmonic vibration amplitude of 10G which are values typical in automotive testing. PCB deflection has been shown to increase with increase in temperature. The full field strain has been extracted using high speed cameras operating at 100,000 fps in conjunction with digital image correlation. Material properties of the PCB at test temperatures have been measured using tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. FE simulation using global-local finite element models is thus correlated with the system characteristics such as modal shapes, natural frequencies and displacement amplitudes for every temperature. The solder level stresses have been extracted from the sub-models. Stress amplitude versus cycles to failure curves are obtained at all the three test temperatures. A comparison of failure modes for different surface mount packages at elevated test temperatures and vibration has been presented in this study.
High Cycle Fatigue Life-Prediction for Lead-Free Interconnects Under Simultaneous High Temperature and Vibration
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Lall, P, & Limaye, G. "High Cycle Fatigue Life-Prediction for Lead-Free Interconnects Under Simultaneous High Temperature and Vibration." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 10: Micro- and Nano-Systems Engineering and Packaging. San Diego, California, USA. November 15–21, 2013. V010T11A075. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2013-66820
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