Concentration is a vital measure to collect samples in biology. The same measure can also benefit bio-signal enhancement. Conventionally, signal detection heavily relies on the sensitivity of sensors. However, background noise usually interferes with the accuracy as the sample concentration level is below a threshold. The signals are even weaker especially in miniaturized diagnostics or point-of-care devices. Alternatively, single cell/molecule detection[1] was developed to break the engineering limitation and achieve better detectability. However, challenge concerning to single cell/molecule capturing and manipulation is a potential barrier in the field. In addition, the effectiveness of sampling remains an open quest under study. As a result, concentrating samples provides a simple, rapid, and direct means for enhancing weak bio-signal detection.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.