A study was designed and implemented to simulate and validate experimentally the thermal performance and energy of two houses equipped for efficient use of energy in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. The objectives were the simulation and the assessment of energetic, economic, social and environmental impacts of the use of high efficiency air conditioning, high efficiency refrigerators, Solar Water Heater (SWH) and photovoltaic (PV) modules. The simulations carried out were validated by field measurements during years 2011 and 2012. For PV systems, we estimated generation of 1837 kWh/yr. and in the annual monitoring values were obtained 1855 kWh/yr. For SWH, the investment is recovered within a reasonable time (6 years) by saving conventional energy. Electricity consumption per unit area of building for winter and summer was 0.23 and 0.46 kWh/ft2, respectively. The field data of average power for the AC is consistent with the SEER 13 being of 1.0 kW, and for the refrigerator, average power was 128 W. For the 2-story house (1033 sq. ft.), simulation predicted an annual consumption of 4559 kWh and measured value was 4197, PV system contributed 55% of consumption. In regard to the estimated electric bill was for $233 USD, and the reported value was $207 USD. The PV cells contributed with 60%, and the electric utility invoice was $78 USD. In these prototype homes is significantly diminishing electricity consumption in contrast to habitual housing. When energy efficiency is achieved as a first goal, the contribution of renewable energy becomes significant. However, for the PV systems, there is much to do, as combining lower investment with funding polices, because, when energy use is reduced, by energy efficiency and saving programs, customers have a subsidized electricity rate. We strongly recommend focus the subsidy for the users and not to the electricity rates. The way to use energy and habits of user, impacts significantly saving actions and energy efficient and the development of renewable energy. It is not easy to compare houses with different family behaviors. We recommend carry out energy education programs, to induce the market for energy saving and renewable. The monitoring allowed a better assessment of current performance of photovoltaic modulus and inverters, and the effects of temperature; radiation changes due to shade and clouds; dust on surfaces, and of the quality and stability of the supply lines (voltage variations), over their behavior and efficiency. Finally, field experiences will help to develop non-invasive systems, using telemetry of data and control commands, which must be combined with the design of house facilities in such a way forward to smart systems.
Solar Energy in the Housing: Case — Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico
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Campbell Ramírez, HE, Delgado Rendón, R, Lambert Arista, AA, & Samaniego Ramos, MG. "Solar Energy in the Housing: Case — Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 6A: Energy. San Diego, California, USA. November 15–21, 2013. V06AT07A022. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2013-64916
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