This paper developed a mathematical model to simulate the transport phenomena in the arc plasma of a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. The arc model simulated the electromagnetic field in three regions — cathode, arc plasma, and anode; and heat transfer and fluid flow in the arc region. The temperature, velocity, pressure, current density and electromagnetic fields are explored in the arc plasma region to study the arc plasma characteristics. The distributions of heat flux, current density, arc pressure and plasma shear stress at the anode surface are obtained as boundary conditions for weld pool models. The predicted results are compared with published results. The developed arc model will be coupled with a weld pool model to study the interaction between arc plasma and weld pool.

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