Sol-gel driven hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and graphene nanoflakes were incorporated with polycaprolactone (PCL) at different concentrations, and then electrospun at various spinning conditions, such as distance, electrical potential, viscosity and pump speed. The HA nanoparticles were initially amorphous, so they were annealed at elevated temperature (750 °C) for two hours to make them crystalline. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis techniques were conducted on the produced nanocomposite fibers. The studies showed that the HA nanoparticles (20–50 nm) and graphene were well distributed in the PCL fibers (500 nm to 5 μm). We believed that such nanoscale biomaterials can accelerate the bone growth and bone regeneration for many patients who are seeking solutions.

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