Results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton power plant cycle with recompression at different reactor outlet temperatures are presented. The direct supercritical CO2 power plant cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect power plant cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550°C and 850°C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power plant cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of approximately 40 to 50% can be achieved over the reactor coolant outlet temperature range of 550°C to 850°C. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power plant cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 11–13% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.
Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications
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Harvego, EA, & McKellar, MG. "Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 4: Energy Systems Analysis, Thermodynamics and Sustainability; Combustion Science and Engineering; Nanoengineering for Energy, Parts A and B. Denver, Colorado, USA. November 11–17, 2011. pp. 75-81. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2011-63073
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