The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties and kinematics of an ASTM steel toe cage during quasi-static loading and forklift runover. Example ASTM F2413-05-compliant steel-toed shoes were loaded via forklift and via mechanical test device, and examined visually for external damage and fluoroscopically for internal displacement and damage of the steel-toed cage. Resulting displacement was quantified and analyzed to assess likely foot injuries and their location sustained by the wearer. When loaded by a lift truck, an ASTM F2413-05-compliant steel toe supported the weight without crushing, but the structure of the shoe around the steel cup did not, causing the steel toe to rotate and translate fore-aft or laterally, depending on the direction of loading. The survival of the steel toe combined with the failure of the shoe around it may lead to sparing of the toes, with crushing of the distal midfoot due either to direct or induced loading of the foot. Steel-toed shoes are unlikely to prevent injury to the midfoot or proximal phalanges when loaded by a forklift.

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