Small satellites can be constructed at a fraction of the cost of a full-size satellite. One full-size satellite can be replaced with a multitude of small satellites, which offers a benefit in covering more area at the same time, achievable through formations. However, the shortcoming to the smaller size is usually a lack of thrusting capabilities. Furthermore, current designs for small satellite deployment mechanisms are only capable of low deployment velocities (on the order of meters per second). Prior research in using a pneumatic launcher shows that it is possible to achieve higher deployment velocities (75–125 m/s). This is beneficial in that it opens the possibility for limited but useful orbit placement and small satellite formations. Achieving a formation is done by reformulating the classical orbital mechanics equations to find the required deployment velocity vectors that yield the desired formation.

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