The objective of this investigation is to develop a detailed, non-linear asymmetric three-dimensional anatomically and mechanically accurate FE model of complete middle cervical spine (C3-C5) using Hypermesh and MSC.Marc software. To achieve this goal, the components of the cervical spine are modeled using 20-noded hexagonal elements. The model includes the intervertebral disc, cortical bone, cancellous bone, endplates, and ligaments. The structure and dimensions of each spinal component are compared with experimentally measured values. In addition, the soil mechanics formulation of MSC.Marc finite element software is applied to model the mechanical behaviour of vertebrae and intervertebral discs as linear isotropic two-phase (biphasic) material. The FE simulation is conducted to investigate compression, flexion\extension and right\Left lateral bending modes. The simulation results are validated and compared closely with the published experimental data and the existing FE models. In general, results show greater flexibility in flexion and less flexibility in extension. The flexion/extension curves are asymmetric with a greater magnitude in flexion than in extension. In addition, the variations of the predicted lateral C4-C5 disc bulge are investigated and the results show that the maximum disc bulge occurs at the C4-C5 anterior location.

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