The present paper, describe how to carry out the study of the influence of strong cross winds on high-speed trains, and how to draw conclusions to mitigate these effects by means of analysis with computer fluid dynamics. Due to the high speed increase mileage in the railway traffic and the lightening of the axis weight, the effect of the aerodynamic loads on the trains due to strong cross winds are becoming more important. These winds have a negative effect on the stability of trains travelling at high-speed. They can disturb the normal operation, cause damages in the infrastructures or even accidents like derailment or overturning. The objective of this paper is to provide, to study and to evaluate solutions and countermeasures, such as wind breaking structures with different morphologies, that mitigate the effects of the aerodynamic loads produced by the cross wind. The study is focused on the geographical and operative conditions of a high-speed line in Spain, the Madrid–Barcelona high speed line. The most affected zones by the cross wind effects have been selected  and the two high-speed trains that operate in this line have been considered in the study (they can circulate up to 350km/h). Infrastructures on which the train runs have also been taken into account: bridges and ground tracks or embankment. With two-dimensional analysis and static models, the aerodynamic forces acting on these two vehicles, and the improvements achieved in preventing the harmful cross wind effects by means of wind fence have been measured. A commercial CFD software (Computer Fluid Dynamics) has been used for this purpose and deep analysis of the aerodynamic loads have been carried out. Different wind fence shapes have been studied, with different heights, bending angles on the top and porosities. This made possible to compare multiple solutions, and to adapt the characteristics of the new devices to the specific situations in which higher protection is required. The result is a quasi-ideal wind fence. These fences minimize the aerodynamic loads on the surface of train. The results obtained have been compared with the experimental information of other studies and projects. Cost estimation has also been made to assess the viability of these countermeasures.
Protection High Speed Trains Against Lateral Wind Effects
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Sanz Bobi, JDD, Suarez, B, Garzo´n Nu´n˜ez, J, & Brunel Va´zquez, JA. "Protection High Speed Trains Against Lateral Wind Effects." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 13: New Developments in Simulation Methods and Software for Engineering Applications; Safety Engineering, Risk Analysis and Reliability Methods; Transportation Systems. Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA. November 13–19, 2009. pp. 771-780. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2009-10353
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