Various diesel injectors and injection pressures were tested along with exhaust gas recirculation to achieve low NOx and soot emissions. The injectors used in the study included a 6-hole nozzle, a 10-hole nozzle, and a 6-hole convergent nozzle with a K-factor of 3. All three injectors had the same flow numbers and they were effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions at appropriate conditions. It was found that low temperature combustion can be achieved by using high levels of exhaust gas recirculation with late injection timings. High injection pressures significantly reduced soot emissions at conventional injection timings. The effect of injection pressure was not significant at retarded injection timings, i.e., 5 ATDC. The convergent nozzle was found to produce higher soot emissions and its effects on NOx emissions and fuel consumption were not significant. The small nozzle size in the 10-hole injector can generate smaller fuel drops and lead to better atomization. The 10-hole injector appeared to have better air utilization and resulted in significant reductions in NOx and soot emissions over a wide range of operating conditions.

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