Active differentials are increasingly being used in high-end vehicles in order to improve the overall performance of vehicle dynamics control systems. The active differentials can be divided into active limited slip differentials and torque vectoring differentials. This paper presents the development of a generalized mathematical model of active differential dynamics using the bond graph modeling technique. Different levels of model complexity are considered, starting from a second-order model with lumped input and output inertia towards high order models including the gear inertia and halfshaft compliance. The paper also presents typical model simulation results and their comparative analysis with respect to drivability and time response features.

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