This report provides detailed test results for the aluminum S-rail form & crash project. We considered the effect of rotary draw bending, and rotary draw bending plus hydroforming, and their effect on mean crush force, maximum crush force, and maximum bending moment for aluminum s-rails. The use of our sled test setup resulted in accurate, repeatable test results with no end plate welding. The R/D (center bend radius/tube diameter) used were 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Tubes were hydroformed from the circular shape into a square tube with rounded corners. Annealed tubes were used to isolate the forming effects to thickness changes alone.

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