This paper reports a fabrication technique for high strength glass-metal composite micro/nanonozzles with orifice diameters ranging from 430 nm to >100 μm. Unlike the conventional methods used to build micro/nanonozzles, the fabrication technique discussed in this paper is a non-lithographic approach. It uses conventional pulled borosilicate micropipettes as a foundation and nickel as a strengthening layer to build high pressure withstanding micro/nanonozzles. Pipettes built using the pulling process offer a smooth transition to the fluid from the reservoir to the tapered part of the nozzle, providing an ideal geometry from fluid flow and stress point of view. The nozzles are tested for high pressure withstanding capacity by integrating them with a high pressure fluidic setup to drive microjets. As an example, a 1.5 μm diameter nozzle, tested with propane as the working fluid to drive a microjet is observed to withstand pressures upto 10.5 MPa. Apart from simplicity of the fabrication process, this approach also offers the ability to incorporate a wireless temperature control system for the nozzles.

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