Operating safety is one of the most important things to supercritical once-through boilers. To study the hydrodynamic characteristics of fluid in water walls of supercritical once-through boilers and to find out the instable factors will be of great significance to boiler operation. In this paper the mathematical models for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluid in water walls are established. With an example of 600MW boiler, by using the calculation program, the hydrodynamic characteristics curves without and with the throttles at the inlets of the water walls at different operating conditions are presented, the fluid flow instability and the reasons are analyzed. The calculation results show that the boiler operates stably and safely at 100% MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating) condition, the hydrodynamic instability exists at low heating loads of 30% MCR. The method of installing the throttles at the inlets of the water wall pipes will increase the parabola characteristics, help to improve the fluid instability to a certain stable extent, but due to the small curve slopes at low mass flowrates, still need to pay more attention to the low heating loads operation. The existence of gravity pressure head is good to the stability of the vertical upward flow.

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