In this paper, we study the onset of thermal convection in a liquid layer overlying a porous layer, where the whole system being laterally heated. The non-linear two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations, the energy equation and the mass transfer equation are solved for the liquid layer. Instead of Navier Stokes equations, the Brinkman model is used for the porous layer. The partial differential equations are solved numerically using the finite element technique. Three cases are presented in this paper. In the first case, the gravity driven buoyancy convection is studied. In the second case, the surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature, therefore the existence of Marangoni convection. To analyze the Marangoni convection, we consider microgravity condition. Different aspect ratios as well as the thickness ratios are studied in detail for both the first and second cases. In the third case, diffusion and the thermodiffusion between two binary fluids with two different compositions in liquid and porous layer is studied.

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