We propose planar and three-dimensional microfluidic fuel cell architectures based on the all-vanadium redox system. These fuel cells operate in a membraneless co-laminar flow configuration and are manufactured by economical microfabrication methods. Graphite rods, also known as mechanical pencil refills, are demonstrated as fuel cell electrodes in a three-dimensional array architecture with unique scale-up capabilities. We also demonstrate unprecedented power density levels by incorporation of porous electrodes in a planar microfluidic fuel cell.

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