Fabrication of fully integrated capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based microfluidic device with integrated carbon sensing electrode is described in this paper. A combination of microfabrication protocols were employed for fabricating the hybrid PDMS/glass microfluidic device including chemical wet etching, soft lithography, and micromolding techniques. The microdevice is comprised of glass substrate with integrated gold electrodes and carbon sensing electrode, and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) slab that encompasses the microchannels network. The carbon sensing electrode was physically characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectrometry. In addition, its quality was evaluated electrochemically and compared to commercial glassy carbon electrodes upon performing cyclic voltammetric analysis of two illicit drugs, morphine and codeine. The analytical performance of the stand-alone microdevice was evaluated upon testing the injection, separation and amperometric detection on the carbon sensing electrode. The carbon sensing electrode provides stable background current during applying high sensing potential, which is of particular necessity for sensing molecules that can be only detected at high potentials including morphine and codeine.

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