An innovative means for improving crashworthiness is to use tubes filled with a granular material to absorb energy during the process of a crash. In this paper, we will study how to use granular materials in the tubes found in the front posts of automobiles for improved safety. The focus will be on a specific design of tubes filled with a granular material. Note that granular particles can create enormous friction through their interactions; therefore a tube filled with a granular material can absorb much more crash energy than an empty tube. The application of granular materials to a crashworthiness design is very challenging but highly effective. In this paper, we will develop an analytic model based on the effective thickness theory of a tube filled with granules.

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