The effect of surface tilt on results of nanoindentation tests is studied for Berkovich, cube corner and conical indenters. The true projected areas are calculated as a function of tilt angle and orientation using the exact three dimensional geometry of each indenter. The true area is compared with the area when there is no tilt and the resulting error in hardness and modulus are discussed. It is found that the error increases with increasing tilt angle, and magnitude of the error increases as the equivalent cone angle of the indenter increases.

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