This article analyzes the dynamic process of groove filling and the resulting weld pool fluid flow in gas metal arc welding of thick metals with V-groove. Filler droplets carrying mass, momentum, thermal energy, and sulfur species are periodically impinged onto the workpiece. The complex transport phenomena in the weld pool, caused by the combined effect of droplet impingement, gravity, electromagnetic force, surface tension, and plasma arc pressure, were investigated to determine the transient weld pool shape and distributions of velocity, temperature, and sulfur species in the weld pool. It was found that the groove provides a channel which can smooth the flow in the weld pool, leading to poor mixing between the filler metal and the base metal, as compared to the case without a groove.

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