The effects of alkyl group size on nitric oxide and soot emissions in small esters was investigated using a multi-element diffusion burner (a Hencken burner) and pool fires at atmospheric pressure. The esters were chosen to examine chemical structure characteristics, e.g. carboxylic acid length, while holding other parameters constant (molecular weight, and C:H:O ratio), to determine the effects of various structural parameters on the particulate matter and NO emissions. The esters were chosen to vary alkyl chain length from one to four carbons in both their alcohol and carboxylic acid groups with the largest ester chosen containing 5 carbons in total. Increasing the carbon content increased the relative sooting tendencies of the esters. Within the isomer pairs considered, the sooting tendency was higher for compounds with longer alcohol groups compared to longer carboxylic groups. Although the NO results were convolved with temperature and structural effects are not isolated, the NO emissions were significantly affected by the addition of the esters to a baseline methane flame.
An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Functional Group Structure on Particulate Matter and NO Emissions of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons
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Perez, C, Walton, SM, & Wooldridge, MS. "An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Functional Group Structure on Particulate Matter and NO Emissions of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 6: Energy Systems: Analysis, Thermodynamics and Sustainability. Seattle, Washington, USA. November 11–15, 2007. pp. 49-55. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2007-41947
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