Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia attracts growing research interest aiming to develop a localized heating approach for malignant tumors treatment. In this method, magnetic nanoparticles delivered to the tissue or blood vessels induce localized heating when exposed to alternating magnetic field, leading to irreversible thermal damage to the tumor. Controlling the heat distribution and temperature elevation in such treatment is still an immense challenge in clinical applications. In this study, we inject nanofluid into agarose gel to study nanofluid transport in the extracellular space of biological tissue. Nanofluid distribution in the gel is examined via digital images of the nanofluid spreading in the gel. By adjusting gel concentrations and injection flow rates, we expect to identify an idealized particle delivery strategy for achieving spherical shaped nanoparticle dispersion. Thermocouples are then inserted into the gel to measure the initial temperature rises at various locations in the gel to obtain the specific absorption rate (SAR). The preliminary results have demonstrated that a spherical shaped particle deposition is possible with a relatively low injection rate of the nanofluid and a technique that minimizes the air gap surrounding the injection needle. The distribution of energy absorption (SAR) implies that the nanoparticle distribution in the gel is not uniform. High concentration of nanoparticles is observed close to the center of the injection site. Based on the particle deposition pattern, a theoretical model will be developed in the future to simulate the temperature distribution in tissue during nanoparticle hyperthermia treatment. The simulated results will help provide guidance for designing a better treatment protocol in future clinical application.

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