We describe the fabrication of microoptical cylindrical and hemispherical lenses vertically embedded in a photosensitive Foturan glass by femtosecond (fs) laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. The process is mainly composed of four steps: (1) fs laser scanning in the photosensitive glass to form curved surfaces (spherical and/or cylindrical); (2) postannealing of the sample for modification of the exposed areas; (3) chemical etching of the sample for selective removal of the modified areas; and (4) second postannealing for smoothening the surfaces of the tiny lenses. We examine the focusing ability of the microoptical lenses using a He-Ne laser beam, showing great potential of using these microoptical lenses in lab-on-a-chip applications.

1.
Figeys
D.
,
Pinto
D.
,
2000
, “
Lab-on-a-chip: A revolution in biological and medical sciences
,”
Anal. Chem.
72
, pp.
330A
330A
.
2.
Burns
M. A.
,
Johnson
B. N.
,
Brahmasandra
S. N.
,
Handique
K.
,
Webster
J. R.
,
Krishnan
M.
,
Sammarco
T. S.
,
Man
P. M.
,
Jones
D.
,
Heldsinger
D.
,
Mastrangelo
C. H.
,
Burke
D. T.
,
1998
, “
An integrated nanoliter DNA analysis device
,”
Science
282
, pp.
484
484
.
3.
Lien
V.
,
Zhao
K.
,
Lo
Y.
,
2005
, “
Fluidic photonic integrated circuit for in-line detection
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
87
, pp.
194106
194106
.
4.
Balslev
S.
,
Kristensen
A.
,
2005
, “
Microfluidic singlemode laser using high-order Bragg grating and antiguiding segments
,”
Opt. Express
13
, pp.
344
344
.
5.
Cheng
Y.
,
Sugioka
K.
,
Midorikawa
K.
,
2005
, “
Freestanding optical fibers fabricated in a glass chip using femtosecond laser micromachining for lab-on-achip application
,”
Opt. Express
13
, pp.
7225
7225
.
6.
Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, 2004, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29, pp. 2007.
7.
Ho
K. W.
,
Lim
K.
,
Shim
B. C.
,
Hahn
J. H.
,
2005
, “
Integrated light collimating system for extended optical-path-length absorbance detection in microchip based capillary electrophoresis
,”
Anal. Chem.
77
, pp.
5160
5160
.
8.
Masuda
M.
,
Sugioka
K.
,
Cheng
Y.
,
Aoki
N.
,
Kawachi
M.
,
Shihoyama
K.
,
Toyoda
K.
,
Helvajian
H.
,
Midorikawa
K.
,
2003
, “
3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation
,”
Appl. Phys. A
76
, pp.
857
857
.
9.
Helvajian
H.
,
Fuqua
P. D.
,
Hansen
W. W.
,
Janson
S.
,
2001
, “
Laser microprocessing for nanosatellite microthruster applications
,”
RIKEN Review
32
, pp.
57
57
.
10.
Cheng
Y.
,
Sugioka
K.
,
Midorikawa
K.
,
Masuda
M.
,
Toyoda
K.
,
Kawachi
M.
,
Shihoyama
K.
,
2003
, “
Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser
,”
Opt. Lett.
28
, pp.
55
55
.
11.
Kondo
Y.
,
Qiu
J.
,
Mitsuyu
T.
,
Hirao
K.
,
Yoko
T.
,
1999
, “
Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching
,”
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
38
, pp.
L1146
L1146
.
12.
Hongo
T.
,
Sugioka
K.
,
Niino
H.
,
Cheng
Y.
,
Masuda
M.
,
Miyamoto
J.
,
Takai
H.
,
Midorikawa
K.
,
2005
, “
Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
97
, pp.
063517
063517
.
13.
Bhardwaj
V. R.
,
Simova
E.
,
Corkum
P. B.
,
Rayner
D. M.
,
Hnatovsky
C.
,
Taylor
R. S.
,
Schreder
B.
,
Kluge
M.
,
Zimmer
J.
,
2005
, “
Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
97
, pp.
083102
083102
.
14.
Cheng
Y.
,
Sugioka
K.
,
Midorikawa
K.
,
Masuda
M.
,
Toyoda
K.
,
Kawachi
M.
,
Shihoyama
K.
,
2003
, “
Threedimensional microoptical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser
,”
Opt. Lett.
28
, pp.
1144
1144
.
15.
Rosenberg
R.
,
2005
Why is ice slippery?
Phys. Today
58
(
12)
, pp.
50
50
.
16.
H. Helvajian, private discussion.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.