Heavily welded circular hollow cross sections (CHS) are a common feature in civil structures such as draglines used in the mining industry and other off-shore structures. The sheer mass of the weldment and the application of intense heat generated during the welding process give birth to significant residual stresses in the structure. Often, residual stresses are high enough to act to accelerate factors such as corrosion, crack growth and fatigue. The objective of this research investigation was to predict welding generated residual stresses in a typical CHS T-Joint using Sysweld+, a welding Finite Element Analysis software. The T-joint is the first of the four lacings welded on to the main chord of a BE 1370 mining dragline cluster (designated All) of a type which is often used in the mining industry in Australia. This work examines a massive 3-dimensional geometry, which is on a much larger scale than those examined in existing studies. The paper presents the results of the simulation of residual stresses generated during the welding process in a single weld pass and compares them with the approach used in the commonly used document R6-Revision 4, Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects.

1.
Dayawansa
P.
, et al.,
Fracture mechanics of mining dragline booms
.
Engineering Failure Analysis
,
2006
.
13
(
4)
: p.
716
725
.
2.
Aimer
J. D.
,
Cohen
J. B.
, and
Moran
B.
,
The effects of residual macrostresses and microstresses on fatigue crack initiation
.
Materials Science and Engineering A
,
2000
, vol
284
(
1–2)
: p.
268
279
.
3.
Debroy, T. and S.A. David, Physical processes in fusion welding. Reviews of Modern Physics, 1995. Vol. 67(1).
4.
Price
J. W. H.
, et al.,
Residual stresses measurement by neutron diffraction and theoretical estimation in a single weld bead
.
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping
,
2006
.
83
(
5)
: p.
381
387
.
5.
Paradowska
A.
, et al.,
Study of influence of post weld heat treatment on residual stress distribution in tubular joints
.
Welding in the World
,
2005
,
49
(
9 SPEC ISS)
: p.
512
521
.
6.
Mashiri
F. R.
,
Zhao
X.-L.
, and
Grundy
P.
,
Stress concentration factors and fatigue failure of welded T-connections in circular hollow sections under inplane bending
.
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics
,
2004
,
4
(
3)
: p.
403
422
.
7.
Ye
X.-H.
and
Chen
X.
,
Three-dimensional modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser full-penetration welding
.
J. Phys. D: Applied Physics
,
2002
, Vol.
35
: p.
1049
1056
.
8.
Cai, Z., et al., Line Gauss heat source model: an efficient approach for numerical welding simulation. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2001. Vol. 6(2).
9.
De, A., et al., Finite element simulation of laser spot welding. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2003. Vol. 8(5).
10.
Goldak
J.
,
Chakravarti
A.
, and
Bibby
M.
,
A New Finite Element Model for Welding Heat Sources
.
Metallurgical Transactions B
, June
1984
. Vol.
15B
: p.
299
305
.
11.
Junek, L., et al., Residual stress simulation oncoporating weld HAZ microstructure. Fracture. Fatigue and Weld Residual Stress, 1999. Vol. 393.
12.
Lindgren
L. E.
,
Finite Element Modeling and Simulation of Welding, Part 1: Increased Complexity
.
Journal of Thermal Stresses
,
2001
. Vol.
24
: p.
141
192
.
13.
Murugan
S.
, et al.,
Numerical Modeling and Experimental Determination of Temperature Distribution During Manual Metal Arc Welding
.
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining
,
1999
. Vol.
4
(
6)
: p.
357
364
.
14.
Nguyen, N.T., Thermal analysis of welds, 2004, Southampton, UK: WIT Press.
15.
vanWingerde, A.M., The fatigue behaviour of T and X joints made of square hollow sections. Heron, 1992, 37(2).
16.
Nguyen, N.T., et al. Analytical solution of double-ellipsoidal moving heat source and its use for evaluation of residual stresses in bead-on-plate. in International Conference on fracture mechanics and advanced engineering materials. 1999. University of Sydney, Australia.
17.
Oddy, A.S., et al. Predicting Residual Stresses in Weaved Repair Welds, in 5th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research. 1998. Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA.
18.
Oddy, A.S., et al. Measurement and Variability of Residual Stresses in Weaved Repair Welds, in 5th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research. 1998. Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA.
19.
Stacey
A.
, et al.,
Incorporation of residual stresses into the SINTAP defect assessment procedure
.
Engineering Fracture Mechanics
,
2000
,
67
(
6)
: p.
573
611
.
20.
British Energy, B., AEA Technology, Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects, R6-Revision 4. September, 2000.
21.
Paradowska, A.M., et al. Neutron Diffraction Evaluation of Residual Stress for Several Welding Arrangements and Comparison with Fitness-for-Purpose Assessments, in 2006 ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Division Conference. 2006. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.