In the present work, a numerical study has been performed to simulate the effect of free-stream turbulence, length scale and variations in rotational speed of the rotor on heat transfer and fluid flow for a transonic high-pressure turbine stage with tip clearance. The stator and rotor rows interact via a mixing plane, which allows the stage to be computed in a steady manner. The focus is on turbine aerodynamics and heat transfer behavior at the mid-span location, and at the rotor tip and casing region. The results of the fully 3D CFD simulations are compared with experimental results available for the so-called MT1 turbine stage. The predicted heat transfer and static pressure distributions show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. In general, the local Nusselt number increases, at the same turbulence length scale, as the turbulence intensity increases, and the location of the suction side boundary layer transition moves upstream towards the blade leading edge. Comparison of the different length scales at the same turbulence intensity shows that the stagnation heat transfer was significantly increased as the length scale increased. However, the length scale evidenced no significant effects on blade tip or rotor casing heat transfer. Also, the results presented in this paper show that the rotational speed in addition to the turbulence intensity and length scale has an important contribution to the turbine blade aerodynamics and heat transfer.

1.
Denton, J.D., 1974, “A Time Marching Method for Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Blade to Blade Flows”, ARC R&M 3775.
2.
Sieverding
C. H.
,
1985
, “
Recent Progress in the Understanding of Basic Aspects of Secondary Flows in Turbine Blade Passages
”,
ASME J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
,
107
, pp.
248
257
.
3.
Langston
S.
,
2001
, “
Secondary Flows in Axial Turbines - A Review
”,
Heat Transfer in Gas Turbine Systems, Annals of the N.Y. Academy of Sciences
,
932
, pp.
11
26
.
4.
Dunn
M. G.
,
2001
, “
Convective Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics in Axial Flow Turbines
”,
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
123
, pp.
637
686
.
5.
Amano, R.S., Song, B., Sitarama, S., and Lin, B., 1998, “Predictions of Turbulent Flow in a Turbine Stator/Rotor Passage”, ASME GT-1998-524.
6.
Hermanson, K., Kern, S., Picker, G., and Parneix, S., 2002, “Prediction of External Heat Transfer for Turbine Vanes and Blades with Secondary Flowfields”, ASME GT-2002-30206.
7.
Kang
M.
, and
Thole
K. A.
,
2000
, “
Flowfield Measurements in the Endwall Region of a Stator Vane
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
122
, pp.
458
466
.
8.
Kang
M.
,
Kohli
A.
, and
Thole
K. A.
,
1999
, “
Heat Transfer and Flowfield Measurements in the Leading Edge Region of a Stator Vane Endwall
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
121
, pp.
558
568
.
9.
Tallman, J.A., 2004, “CFD Heat Transfer Predictions for a High-Pressure Turbine Stage”, ASME GT2004-53654.
10.
Haldeman, C.W., 2003, “An Experimental Investigation of Clocking Effects on Turbine Aerodynamics Using a Modern 3-D One and One Half Stage High Pressure Turbine for Code Verification and Flow Model Development”, PhD Thesis, The Ohio State University.
11.
Haldeman, C.W., and Dunn, M.G., 2004, “Aerodynamic and Heat Flux Measurements with Predictions on a Modern One and One Half Stage High Pressure Turbine”, ASME GT2004-53478.
12.
Ameri, A.A. and Rigby, D.L., 1999, “A Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Effectiveness on Film Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Models”, NASA CR 1999-209165, Also in Proc. 14th Int. Symp. Air Breathing Engines, Florence, Italy.
13.
Ameri
A. A.
,
Steinthorsson
E.
, and
Rigby
D. L.
,
1998
, “
Effect of Squealer Tip on Rotor Heat Transfer and Efficiency
”,
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
120
, pp.
753
759
.
14.
Ameri
A. A.
, and
Arnone
A.
,
1996
, “
Transition Modeling Effects on Turbine Rotor Blade Heat Transfer Predictions
”,
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
118
, pp.
307
313
.
15.
Ameri, A.A., and Steinthorsson, E., 1995, “Prediction of Unshrouded Rotor Blade Tip Heat Transfer”, ASME Paper 95-GT-142.
16.
Metzger
D. E
, and
Rued
K.
,
1989
, “
The Influence of Turbine Leakage on Passage Velocity and Heat Transfer near Blade Tips: Part 1-Sink Flow Effects on Blade Pressure Side
”,
ASME J. Heat Transfer
, Vol.
111
, pp.
284
292
.
17.
Bunker
R. S.
,
Bailey
J. C.
, and
Ameri
A. A.
,
2000
, “
Heat Transfer and Flow on the First-Stage Blade Tip of Power Generation Gas Turbine: Part 1- Experimental Results
”,
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
122
, pp.
263
271
.
18.
Ameri
A. A.
, and
Bunker
R. S.
,
2000
, “
Heat Transfer and Flow on the First-Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine: Part 2- Simulative Results
”,
ASME J. Turbomachinery
, Vol.
122
, pp.
263
271
.
19.
Rigby, D.L., Ameri, A.A., and Steinthorrson, E., 1996, “Internal Passage Heat Transfer Prediction Using Multiblock Grids and k-ε Turbulence Model”, ASME 19996-GT-188.
20.
Van Fossen
G. J.
,
Simoneau
R. J.
, and
Ching
C. Y.
,
1995
, “
Influence of Turbulence Parameters, Reynolds Number, and Body Shape on Stagnation-region Heat Transfer
”,
ASME J. Heat Transfer
Vol.
117
, pp.
597
603
.
21.
Mayle, R.E., Dullenkopf, K., and Schulz, A., 1997, “The Turbulence that Matters”, ASME 97-GT-274.
22.
Butler
R. J.
,
Byerley
A. R.
,
Treuren
K. V.
, and
Baughn
J. W.
,
2001
, “
The Effect of Turbulence Intensity and Length Scale on Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Aerodynamics
”,
J. Heat and Fluid Flow
Vol.
22
, pp.
123
133
.
23.
Boyle, R.J., and Giel, P.W., 2004, “Predictions of the Effects of Free-stream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer”, ASME GT2004-54332.
24.
Mumic, F., and Sunden, B., 2006, “Numerical Prediction of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in a Transonic Turbine Stage”, ICHMT Dubrovnik-Croatia.
25.
Ghana, K.S., and Hilditch, M.A., 1995, “A Summary of Datum Uncooled Measurements of the MT1 Single Stage High Pressure Turbine in the DRA Pyestock Isentropic Light Piston Facility”, IMT Area 3 Turbine Project, AER2-CT92-0044.
26.
Chana, K.S., and Jones, T.V., 2002, “An Investigation on Turbine Tip and Shroud Heat Transfer”, ASME GT-2002-30554.
27.
Durbin
P. A.
,
1995
, “
Separated Flow Computations with the k - ε - v2 Model
”,
AIAA J.
33
(
4)
, pp.
659
664
.
28.
Fluent 6.2 User’s Guide 2005.
29.
Mumic, F., Ljungkrona, L., and Sunden, B., 2006, “Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow for a Rotating High-Pressure Turbine”, ASME GT2006-90016.
30.
Moore, H., and Gregory-Smith, D.G., 1996, “Transition Effects on Secondary Flows in Turbine Cascade”, ASME 96-GT-100.
31.
Garg
V. K.
, and
Ameri
A. A.
,
2001
, “
Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Prediction of Heat Transfer on a Transonic Blade
”,
Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow
, Vol.
22
, pp.
593
602
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.