Heat transfer in porous media has been investigated extensively with the motivation of enhancing heat removal in electronics cooling applications. Many investigations have been conducted on heat transfer in a channel filled with porous media. However, steady flow through a porous channel still yield a higher temperature difference along the flow direction. It is conceivable that oscillating flow through a porous channel will produce a more uniform temperature distribution due to the two thermal entrance regions of oscillating flow. As compared to a porous channel packed with metal particles, spheres or woven-screens, the highly porous open-cell metal foam possesses a different configuration. The polyhedral pore and reticulated ligament structures provide the extremely large fluid-to-solid contact surface area and tortuous coolant flow path inside the metal foam, which could increase dramatically the overall heat transfer rate. A survey of the literature shows that heat transfer in open-cell metal foam were mostly investigated under steady flow condition. Published literature on heat transfer in metal foams subjected to oscillating flow is scarce. This paper presents both experimental and numerical investigations on the heat transfer characteristics for oscillating flow through highly porous medium. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of the oscillatory frequency on the heat transfer in metal foams with various pore densities. The results show that the local Nusselt number increases with the kinetic Reynolds number. Higher total heat transfer rates for oscillating flow can be obtained by using high pore density metal foam. The numerical simulation is focused on the study of the variations of the transient temperature and Nusselt number at different locations in the porous channel during a complete cycle. The numerical results show that the profile of the transient temperature decreases with the increase of the distance along the vertical direction and the variation of the instantaneous Nusselt number at entrance region is more significant than that at the location close to the center of the porous channel. It is also found that the two-dimensional temperature distributions in the numerical domain are symmetric about the center of the channel at the cycle-steady state. The comparison shows that the results obtained by the simulation are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data.

1.
Koh
J. C. Y.
,
Colony
R.
,
Analysis of cooling effectiveness for porous materials in a coolant passage
,
ASME J. Heat Transfer
96
(
1974
)
324
330
.
2.
S.M. Kuo, C.L. Tien, Heat transfer augmentation in a foam material filled duct with discrete heat sources, Intersociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena in the Fabrication and Operation of Electronic Components, IEEE, New York (1988) 87–91.
3.
P.X. Jiang, Z.P. Ren, B. X. Wang, Z. Wang, Forced convective heat transfer in a plate channel filled with solid particles, Journal of Thermal Science 5 (1996) 43–53.
4.
Hwang
G.
,
Chao
C.
,
Heat transfer measurement and analysis for sintered porous channels
,
ASME J. Heat Transfer
116
(
1994
)
456
464
.
5.
Fu
H. L.
,
Leong
K. C.
,
Huang
X. Y.
,
Liu
C. Y.
,
An experimental study of heat transfer of a porous channel subjected to oscillating flow
,
ASME J. Heat Transfer
123
(
2001
)
162
170
.
6.
Leong
K. C.
,
Jin
L. W.
,
Heat transfer of oscillating flow and steady flows in a channel filled with porous media
,
Int. Comm. Heat Mass Transfer
31
(
2004
)
63
72
.
7.
Cooper
W. L.
,
Nee
V. M.
,
Yang
K. T.
,
An experimental investigation of convective heat transfer from the heated floor of a rectangular duct to a low frequency, large tidal displacement oscillating flow
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
37
(
1994
)
581
592
.
8.
Zhao
T. S.
,
Cheng
P.
,
Numerical solution to laminar forced convection in a heated pipe subjected to periodically flow
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
38
(
1995
)
3011
2022
.
9.
Guo
Z. X.
,
Kim
S. Y.
,
Sung
H. J.
,
Pulsating flow and heat transfer in a pipe partially filled with a porous medium
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
40
(
1997
)
4209
4218
.
10.
Boomsma
K.
,
Poulikakos
D.
,
On the effective thermal conductivity of a three-dimensionally structured fluid-saturated metal foam
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
44
(
2001
)
827
836
.
11.
Bhattacharya
A.
,
Mahajan
R. L.
,
Finned metal foam heat sinks for electronics cooling in forced convection
,
J. Electronic Packaging
124
(
2002
)
155
163
.
12.
Kim
S. Y.
,
Paek
J. W.
,
Kang
B. H.
,
Thermal performance of aluminum-foam heat sinks by forced air cooling
,
IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech.
26
(
2003
)
262
267
.
13.
Leong
K. C.
,
Jin
L. W.
,
An experimental study of heat transfer in oscillating flow through a channel filled with an aluminum foam
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
48
(
2005
)
243
253
.
14.
Leong
K. C.
,
Jin
L. W.
,
Effect of oscillatory frequency on heat transfer in metal foam heat sinks of various pore densities
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
49
(
2006
)
671
681
.
15.
Leong
K. C.
,
Jin
L. W.
,
Characteristics of oscillating flow through a channel filled with open-cell metal foam
,
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
27
(
2006
)
144
153
.
16.
J.R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis - Study of Uncertainty in Physical Measurements, Oxford University Press (1995).
17.
Hsu
C. T.
,
Cheng
P.
,
Thermal dispersion in a porous medium
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
33
(
1990
)
1587
1597
.
18.
Amiri
A.
,
Vafai
K.
,
Transient analysis of incompressible flow through a packed bed
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
41
(
1998
)
4259
4279
.
19.
Calmidi
V. V.
,
Mahajan
R. L.
,
Forced convection in high porosity metal foams
,
ASME J. Heat Transfer
122
(
2000
)
557
565
.
20.
T.S. Zhao, P. Cheng, Heat transfer in oscillatory flows, Annual Reviews of Heat Transfer 9 (1998).
21.
S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Taylor & Francis (1980).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.